__The
Gravitational Spacecraft from Fran De Aquino
__

**Courtesy
of Fran De Aquino**

*created on
March 21th, 2000 - ***JLN Labs*** -
Last update April 20th, 2000*

**It is known
that photons have ***null ***inertial mass (***m*_{i}*
***=
0 ) and that they do not absorb others photons (***U ***= 0 ). So , if we
put ***m*_{i}* *= 0** and ***U ***= 0 in Eq.(1.04),**

**the result
is ***m**g *= 0**. Therefore photons
have ***null ***gravitational mass.
Let us consider a point source of radiation with power ***P ***, frequency ***f ***and radiation
density at distance ***r ***given by **D = P /4p *r*^{2}

**Due to the ***null
***gravitational
mass of the photons, it must be possible to build a ***shield
***of
photons around the source, which will impede the exchange of
gravitons between the particles inside the ***shield
***and
the rest of the Universe. The ***shield
***begins
at distance ***r***s ****from the source
where the radiation density is such that there will be a photon
in opposition to each incident graviton . This critical situation
occurs when ***D *= *hf *^{2} / *S*_{g}*
***,
where ***S*_{g}*
***is
the geometric cross section of the ***graviton***. Thus ***r*_{s}** ****is given by the
relation, ***r*s =
(*r*g / *f *)( *P*/*h*)^{1/2}

**We then see
that the ELF radiation are the most appropriate to produce the ***shield***. It can be easily
shown that, if ***f ***<< ****1mHz , the radiation
will traverse any particle . It is not difficult to see that in
this case, there will be "clouds" of photons around the
particles inside the ***shield***. Due to the null
gravitational mass of the photons , these "clouds" will
impede the exchange of gravitons between the particle inside the
"cloud" and the rest of the Universe. Thus, we can say
that the gravitational mass of the particle will be null with
respect to the Universe, and that the space-time ***inside
the shield ***(out of the particles) becomes ***flat
***or
***euclidean ***. It is clear that
the space-time which the particles occupies remains
non-euclidean.**

**In an ***euclidean
***space-time
the maximum speed of propagation of the interactions is ***infinite
*** because , as we
know, the metrics becomes from ***Galilei.*

**Therefore,
the interactions are ***instantaneous ***. Thus , in this
space-time the speed of ***photons ***must be ***infinite***, simply because
they are the ***quanta ***of the ***electromagnetic
***interaction.
So, the speed of photons will be infinite ***inside
the shield***.**

**On the
other hand , the new relativistic expression for mass, Eq.(2.06),**

**shows that
a particle with null gravitational mass isn’t submitted to
the increase of ***relativistic mass***, because under
these circumstances its gravitational mass doesn't increase with
increasing velocity .i.e., it remains null independently of the
particle's velocity. In addition , the gravitational potential**** ****for the particle
will be null and, consequently , the component **** ****of the metric tensor
will be equal to ****-1****.**

**Thus , we
will have where ***t' ***is the time in a
clock moving with the particle , and ***ds*^{2}
= *c*^{2}
*dt*^{2}**
****where
***t ***is the time
indicated by a clock at rest ( ***dx ***= ***dy ***= ***dz ***= 0 ). **

**From the
combination of these two equations we conclude that ***t' ***= ***t ***.This means that the
particle will be not more submitted to the relativistic effects
predicted in Einstein's theory. So, it can reach and even surpass
the speed of light . We can imagine a spacecraft with ***positive
***gravitational
mass qual to (m) kg , and ***negative ***gravitational mass (
see System-G in appendix A) equal to ****- ****(m ****- ****0.001) kg . It has a
***shield ***of photons , as
above mentioned. If the photons, which produce the ***shield
***,
radiate from the ***surface ***of the spacecraft ,
then the space-time that it occupies remains ***non-euclidean
***,and
consequently , for an observer in this space-time , the ***total
***gravitational
mass of the spacecraft, will be . Therefore , if its
propulsion system produces F=10N (only) the spacecraft acquires
acceleration ( see Eq.(2.05)).**

**Furthermore,
due to the "cloud" of photons around the spacecraft its
gravitational interaction with the Universe will be null , and
therefore, we can say that its gravitational mass will be null
with respect to the Universe. Consequently, the inertial forces
upon the spacecraft will also be null, in agreement with Eq.2.05
( Mach’s principle ).This means that the spacecraft will
lose its ***inertial properties ***. In addition, the
spacecraft will can reach and even surpass the speed of light
because , as we have seen , a particle with null gravitational
mass will be not submitted to the relativistic effects. **

*Fran De
Aquino, April 20th, 2000*

**See also :**

**The****System-G Experimental setup****tested by Fran De Aquino on January 27th, 2000****Engineering the System-G device****by JL Naudin and Steve Burns**

__Reference
documents__** : **

The Gravitational Spacecraftby Fran De Aquino(physics/9904018 )

Gravitation and Electromagnetism: Correlation and Grand Unificationby Fran De Aquino ( gr-qc/9910036 )

**Email :** **JNaudin509@aol.com** **or mail to ****the ****JLN Lab's
eGroup**** at :**** ****jlnlabs@egroups.com**** ****if you are a**** ****team member****.**

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