The Theory and Operation of a Phase-Conjugated Vacuum Triode 
Floyd A. "Sparky" Sweet - June 24th, 1988 
            Nothing, on the cosmological scale, is virtually everything. It is the home of all the 
invisible fields, rippling with the activity of every real force. Every kind of matter produces a 
field, the field all mesh in complex ways, often causing interference with other fields. Fields 
are the "stuff" of the virtual vacuum. A light particle is nothing more than a large interference 
in the electromagnetic field. Apart from interaction with matter of other fields a field will not 
be changed in the vacuum. It will not go away; it cannot. Fields are a fundamental part of the 
vacuum structure itself. Fields in their most quiescent state form the virtual vacuum itself. Even 
when everything that can be removed from a vacuum has been removed, the Higgs field remains. 
``Imagine the entire universe permeated with a constant magnetic field''. One need not imagine, 
for it is true. It is clear from experimentation that certain results appear that are not explainable 
without the presence of a field. The field consists of an infinite number of one-dimensional 
North and South poles in an incoherent state- incoherent due to the presence of a multitude of 
other interfering fields formed by other North and South poles, or particles or quanta. Thus the 
virtual vacuum is far from empty, far from nothing, it is rather seething with potential energy as 
the primordial powerhouse of everything in the universe. 
        As postulated by Einstein in his famous equation E=MC^2 , energy is a kind of matter. So 
even the energy of distant starlight must be accounted for in any holistic view of physical reality. 
The vacuum itself is literally popping with virtual particles that appear and disappear in the field 
during instants too brief to be measured. Virtual particles with lifetimes or dwelltimes too short 
for the name "particles" to be appropriate. As a result the generated fields are always in some 
state of flux. However, under the influence of a generated Motional Electromagnetic field parts 
of the normally chaotic virtual field break off from randomness and form a more coherent region. 
This region consists of a structured portion of the spacetime continuum which by its very nature 
seems to attract more virtual particles (This increase in particle density has been verified by lab 
experiments conducted the week of June 19, 1988). This higher concentration of particles develops 
a warping of the spacetime continuum where negative energy is produced in abundance. The 
existence of this condition via direct engineering of the virtual state allows for the safe generation 
of electrical energy. This condition, in essence, forms the underlying principle of operation of 
the Phase-Conjugated Vacuum Triode. This device, however, produces negative energy which 
is the reverse of the conventional positive energy generated by all devices in service today. The 
arc generated by a short-circuit in a negative energy system is excessively bright and cold, 
producing barely an audible hiss with no explosive force. Melting of conductors does not occur 
and this type of negative current passes through the human body with only the feeling of a chill. 
Conductors remain cool under load while only tiny cross-sectional areas of copper are required 
to convey many hundreds of watts of power. Although all of this seems nearly unbelievable, 
only what has been demonstrated in the laboratory has been described in this paper. The source 
of energy is unlimited, the virtual vacuum of space itself structured by a motional 
electromagnetic field is the powerhouse. 
        Space itself is the ability to accommodate energy. Consider for a moment the following 
A signal (energy) is transmitted from point A to point B. A and B are separated by a 
finite distance. Consider three periods of time: 
If (3) occurs simultaneously with (1) we say that the signal has traveled at infinite 
velocity. The signal has never resided in the intervening space and therefore there exists 
no space between A and B. A is virtually at the same point in space as B. For real 
space to exist between A and B it is necessary that a signal travelling between them be 
"lost" with reference to both points for a finite period of time. 
        Now we know that for real space to exist between two points a signal travelling between 
them will propagate at a finite velocity . If a signal will not travel between two 
points, as in the case when c=0, then we can also conclude that there is no link or intervening 
space between them. We have no means of detecting either an infinite velocity-supporting space 
or zero-velocity space, so they do not exist as usable scientific concepts. If space cannot 
accommodate a signal it has no function and no reality. We are left then with the only real 
space, the home of the real and virtual vacuum. Space which supports a finite, nonzero velocity 
where .
       The above discussion dealt with a definition of space and the propagation velocity it will 
support. A similar argument applies to the impedance of space. A medium can only 
accommodate positive energy if the medium resists it to a reasonable degree. Neither an 
infinitely strong spring nor an infinitely weak one can absorb or accommodate energy by being 
compressed. Neither an infinitely large mass nor an infinitely light mass can absorb or 
accommodate energy imparted by collision. The same holds true for space. Energy cannot enter 
space of zero impedance (i.e; ) any more than a force can bear on a mass of zero 
magnitude. Similarly, energy could not enter space of infinite impedance. It follows therefore, 
that necessary properties of real space are: 
1) finite propagation velocity 
2) finite impedance. 
      Continuing our discussion of space and the values of c, Zo, , we take as given 
that real space sustains non-zero finite impedance and velocity as follows: 
where:  and are characteristics of a unit volume 
As yet we have not arrived at volume, which implies real space. At this point in our 
discussion we have merely described c and Zo . Therefore, we can only define  and  in terms 
of them. Algebraically it can be shown that: 
Although we have said that the fundamental characteristics of space are c and Zo , perhaps 
it is better to say that they are t and Zo , where t is the time delay through a finite segment of 
space replacing c, the velocity through that segment. It is profitable to move away from the idea 
of constant velocity c travelling through space which leads one to conceptualization of a segment 
of space which traversed in 1 nanosecond (nsec) is 1 foot long. If one starts with a conceptual 
frame in which space is in terms of t, a segment of space can easily be though of as 1 nsec wide, 
and the energy entering it appears leaving it 1 nsec later. Subsidiary concepts of length and 
velocity can then be deduced as needed. We could alternately say that space was (a) 1 foot wide 
with a propagation velocity of 1 foot/nsec, or (b) 2 feet wide with a velocity of 2 feet/nsec. 
Fundamental to the proposed world view is the reality that no experiment could help us decide 
between (a) and (b). The essence of space is time, not distance, and only one propagation 
velocity () is possible through a segment of space. Thus, time through a segment is 
intimately related to the length of the segment. Propagation which is not at the speed of light 
cannot exist according to this world view. 
       Consider energy, flowing straight and level down the proximity of a transmission line. 
The energy does not know the width of the channel through which it is passing. If the energy 
reaches a point where the dielectric changes (but not the geometry), some of it will continue on 
and some of it will reflect. If the energy reaches a change in the width of the transmission line 
some will reflect and some will continue as well. The energy current will not know whether: 
Energy current does not have directional inertia, so that (a) is equivalent to (b). Energy 
current does have an aspect ratio. If the aspect ratio is forced to change, some of the flowing 
energy will reflect in order to assure that its total aspect ratio remains constant. Crudely, the 
aspect ratio is similar to the ratio of E to H, or the same as the ratio of to . The 
aspect ratio of energy current is much like the aspect ratio of space. While the aspect ratio of 
space can change, it fundamental velocity cannot really change. This parameter 
becomes merely our way of conceptualizing time delay when energy resides in a region of space. 
         A /B = Aspect Ratio 

Uniform space has only two parameters:

Aspect ratio defines the shape of energy entering a given region of space, but not its 
amplitude. Velocity or length define the time during which the properly shaped energy can be 
accommodated by a region of space. Aspect ratio is really a definition of the relative 
compatibility of adjacent regions of space. Does flowing energy current largely travel unimpeded 
through an interface, or does it largely reflect at the interface? Space has quiet zones through 
which energy glides virtually unreflected. There are also noisy zones where energy current 
becomes incoherent, bounces about and splits apart. Noisy zones in space have either rapidly 
changing geometry or rapidly changing impedance (). 
          The rate of flow of energy through a surface can be calculated as a function of E and H. 
Specifically this flow is equivalent to E.H per unit area. This energy flows at the speed of light 
through a medium where . E and H are in quadrature and are normal to the direction 
of the energy flow. The energy density is therefore: E.H/c. If two signals of equal magnitude 
(assume E/2 & H/2) are travelling through each other in opposite directions the energy density 
is calculated as follows: 
If the directions of the two signals are such that opposite H-fields cancel and E-fields add, an 
apparently steady E-field will be created. The energy density of the fields remain as calculated 
above, but the value of the E-field will double from E/2 to E. It is a simple matter using the 
equations and for a team wave to get rid of H and c and so convert the 
first equation into the well known equation for energy density in the so-called electrostatic field: 
Similarly, if two signals flow through each other in such a way as to give the appearance of a 
steady magnetic field as a result of their E-field canceling it is easily shown using the above 
equations to cancel out H and c so that: 
Modern physics is based upon the faulty assumption that electromagnetics contains two 
kinds of energy: electric and magnetic. This assumption leads to a Baroque view of physical 
reality. Under that view energy seems to be associated with the square of the field intensity 
rather than a more reasonable view that it is linearly proportional to field intensity. It is worth 
remembering that neither Einstein nor most modern physicists were or are familiar with the 
concept of energy currents described herein. However, their work still survives by ignoring the 
energy current concept, scalar electromagnetics, the works of T. E. Bearden, Kaluza-Klein, and 
other who dispute Heaviside's interpretations of Maxwell's equations. 
         Conventional electromagnetic theory proposes that when an electric current flows down 
a wire into a capacitor it spreads out across the plate, producing an electric charge on the plate 
which in turn leads to an electric field between the capacitor plates. The valuable concept of 
continuity is then retained by postulating ``after Maxwell'' a displacement current. This current 
is a manipulation of the electric field (E) between the capacitor plates which has the dimensions 
of electric current and completes the flow of electricity in the circuit. This approach permits us 
to retain Kirchoff's laws and other valuable concepts even though superficially it appears that at 
the capacitor there is a break in the continuous flow of electric current. The flaw in this model 
appears when we notice that the current entered the capacitor at only one point on the capacitor 
plate. We then are left with the major difficulty of explaining how the electric charge flowing 
down the wire suddenly distributes itself uniformly across the entire capacitor plate, at a velocity 
in excess of the speed of light. This paradoxical situation is created by a flaw in the basic 
model. Work in high speed logic conducted by Ivor Catt has shown that the model of lumped 
capacitance is faulty and displacement current is an artifact of the faulty model. Since any 
capacitor behaves similarly to a transmission line it is no more necessary to postulate a 
displacement current for the capacitor than it is necessary to do so for a transmission line. The 
excision of ``displacement current'' from electromagnetic theory has been based on arguments 
which are independent of the classic dispute over whether the electric current causes the 
electromagnetic field, or vice versa. 
         Of all the known fields- electric, magnetic, gravitational and motional E-field- the only 
ones incapable of being shielded are the induced motional E-field and the gravitational field. The 
nature of the motionally induced electric field is quite unique; in order understand it more fully 
we must start by parting with a few misleading paradigms. When magnetic flux is moved 
perpendicularly across a conductor an electromotive force (e.m.f.) is electromagnetically induced 
``within'' the conductor. ``Within'' is an artifact of the commonly used analogy comparing the 
flow of electric current within a wire to the flow of water within a pipe. This is a most 
misleading model theoretically. The true phenomenon taking place has little been thought of as 
involving the production of a spatially distributed electric field. We can see that the model's 
origins likely arose from the operation called ``flux cutting'', a most deceiving and misleading 
term. A better term, ``time varying flux modulation'', does not imply any separation of lines of 
flux. Truly, lines of flux are always in closure upon themselves and are mathematically 
expressed as line integrals. It is fallacious to use the term ``cutting'', which implies time varying 
separation which does not in fact ever occur. A motionally induced E-field is actually created 
within the space occupied by the moving magnetic flux described above. This field is present 
therein, whether or not a conductor is present in the space. In terms of a definition we can say 
that, when magnetic flux of vector intensitymoved across a region of space with vector 
velocity, electromagnetically induced electric field vector BxV appears in the space at right 
angles to bothand . Therefore, 
It is this field that is related to gravity, it is virtually unshieldable. This field may be called the 
Motional E-field. According to T.E. Bearden ``It seems that the charged particles in the atom 
(electrons and protons) act like tiny magnets. Their motion in the space surrounding the atom 
would create this motional E-field''. The field created by both the positive and negative charges 
would cancel to some degree, but due to the high orbital velocity of the negative electron relative 
to that of the positive proton the induced field of the electron should dominate the resulting field. 
The field produced as a result of these charges would vary proportionally to the inverse square 
of distance similar to gravity. The field produced by the translational motion of the charges 
would vary inversely as the cube of distance. This concept totally unites the electromagnetic and 
gravitational field theories and accounts for the strong and weak forces within the atom. 
         Electromagnetic induction with no measurable magnetic field is not new. It is well known 
that in the space surrounding a properly wound toroidal coil there is no magnetic field. This is 
due to the superposition of the fields. However, when alternating current is surging through a 
transformer an electric field surrounds it. When we apply the principle of superposition to the 
vacuum triode it becomes more obvious how the device is in fact operating. 
       The principle of superposition states that ``In order to calculate the resultant intensity of 
superimposed fields, each field must be dealt with individually as though the other were not 
present''. The resultant is obtained by vector addition of each field considered singularly. 
Consider for a moment the construction of the triode which includes the bifilar coils located 
within the fields of the two conditioned magnets. When the current in one half of the conductors 
in the coils (i.e., one of the bifilar elements in each coil) of the device is moving up, both the 
current and the magnetic field follow the right-hand rule. The resultant motional E-field would 
be vertical to both and inwardly directed. At the same time the current in the other half of the 
conductors in the coils is moving down and both the current and magnetic field follow the right- 
hand rule. The resulting motion E-field is again vertical to both and inwardly directed. Thus, 
the resultant field intensity is double the intensity attributable to either one of the set of coil 
conductors taken singularly. Expressed mathematically; 
The first term in the equation represents the flow of the magnetic field when the 
electrons are moving in one direction, while the second term defines the flow of the 
magnetic field when the electrons are moving in the other direction. These measurements 
indicate that field intensity is directly proportional to the square of the current required by the 
load placed on the device. This is due to its proportional relationship with the virtual value of 
the magnetic field which theory states is proportional to the current. Electrometer readings were 
always close to parabolic, thus indicating that the source was of infinite capacity. It was further 
determined through experiment that the magnetic field does not change with temperature. Also, 
there is no reason yet identified which would lead one to believe that electron drift velocity 
changes. It has been found remarkable that the vacuum triode runs approximately 20F below 
         When an e.m.f. is impressed on a closed metallic circuit, current results. The e.m.f. along 
a closed path C in space is defined as the work per unit charge (W/Q) done by the 
electromagnetic fields on a small test charge moved along path C. Since work is the line integral 
of force (F), the work per unit charge is the line integral of force per unit charge. Letting F/Q 
denote the vector electromagnetic force per unit charge (in newtons per coulomb) we have 
The scalar product (F/Q) dtdl is the product of (F/Q) * cos dl with denoting the angle 
between vectors F/Q and dl. 
         The electric force per unit charge is the electric field intensity (E) in volts/meter. The 
magnetic force per unit charge is V x B where V denotes the velocity of the test charge in meters 
per second and B denotes the magnetic flux density in webers/M^2. In terms of the smaller angle 
between V and B, the cross product of V and B is a vector having the magnitude VB sin. 
The direction of vector VxB is normal to the plane which contains vectors V and B in accordance 
with the right-hand rule (i.e., VxB is in the direction of the thumb while the fingers curl through 
the anglefrom V toward B). Since the total force per unit charge is E + VB the total e.m.f. 
in terms of the fields is: 
It appears from eq. (4) that the e.m.f. depends on the forward velocity with which the test charge 
is moved along the path C. This, however, is not the case. If V and dl in eq. (4) have the same 
direction then their associated scalar product is zero. Thus, only the component of V which is 
not in-line with dl (i.e.=0) can contribute to the e.m.f.. This component has value only if the 
differential path length dl has a sideways motion. Thus, V in eq. (4) represents the sideways 
motion, if any, of dl. The fields E and B in eq.(4) could well be represented as functions of time 
as well as functions of the space coordinates. In addition, the velocity V of each differential path 
length dl may vary with time. However, eq. (4) correctly expresses the e.m.f. or voltage drop 
along path C as a function of time. That component of the e.m.f. consisting of the line integral 
V x B is the motional E-field since it has value ony when path C is moving through a magnetic 
field, traversing lines of magnetic flux. For stationary paths there is no motional E-field and the 
voltage drop is simply the integral of the electric field E. E.m.f.s are generated by devices that 
separate charge. A familiar example is the battery which utilizes chemical forces to separate 
charge. Other examples include the heating of a thermocouple, exposure of a photovoltaic cell 
to incident light, or the rubbing together of different materials (electrostatic charge separation). 
electric fields are also produced by time varying magnetic fields. This principle is extensively 
exploited to produce conventional electric power in the utility industry. 
       The line integral of electric field intensity E around any closed path C equals -d/dt, with 
 representing the magnetic flux over any surface S having the closed path C as its contour. The 
positive side of the surface S and the direction of the line integral around contour C are related 
by the right-hand rule (the curled fingers are oriented so as to point around the loop in the 
direction of the integration and the extended thumb points out the positive side of the surface S.) 
The magnetic flux is the surface integral of magnetic flux density B as shown below: 
In eq. (5) the vector differential surface ds has an area of ds and is directionally normal to the 
plane of ds out of the positive side. The partial time derivative of  is defined as: 
This is referred to as the magnetic current through surface S. For moving surface S the limits 
of the surface integral in eq. (6) are functions of time but the equation is still applicable. It is 
important to clarify at this point that when we evaluate the value of d/dt over a surface that is 
moving in the proximity of magnetic field activity we treat the surface for the instant under 
consideration as though it were stationary. The partial time derivative ofis the time rate of 
change of flux through surface S due only to a changing magnetic field density B. Any increase 
ofdue to the motion of the surface in the B-field is not included in that calculation. 
         Continuing this discussion leads us to note that an electric field must be present in any 
region containing a time varying magnetic field. This is shown by eq. (7) displayed below: 
In this equationis the magnetic flux in webers out of the positive side of any surface having 
path C as its contour. Combining e. (7) above with e. (4) we are able to calculate the e.m.f. 
about a closed path C. This is shown below: 
and in another form 
Thus, the e.m.f. around a closed path consists in general of two components. The component  
d/dt is the variational e.m.f. and the second component is the motional E-field. In eq.(9) 
(VxB)dl can be means of a vector identity be replaced with B*(Vxdl)A. V is the sideways 
velocity of dl, the vector Vxdl has magnitude Vdl and a direction normal to the surface ds swept 
out by moving length dl in time d. Letting Bn denote the component of B normal to this area 
we can see that -B*(vxdl) becomes -BnVdl and eq.(9) can be rewritten as: 
Clearly, the integral of BnV around the closed contour C with sideways velocity of magnitude 
V for each length dl traversed is simply the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the 
surface bounded by C. This change is due directly to the passage of path C through lines of 
magnetic flux. Hence, the complete expression of e.m.f. above in eq.(10) is the time rate of 
change of the magnetic flux over any surface S bounded by the closed path C, due to the 
changing magnetic field and the movement of the path through the magnetic field. eq.(10) may 
be written: 
         NOTE: The only difference between eq.(7) and eq.(11) is that eq.(7) contains only the 
variational e.m.f. while eq.(11) is the sum of the variational and motional emf's. In eq.(7) the 
partial time derivative of magnetic fluxis the rate of flux change due only to the time varying 
magnetic field while eq.(11) includes the total time derivative of the rate of flux change due to 
the time varying magnetic field and path C's passage through the magnetic field. If the closed 
path C is not passing through lines of magnetic flux then eq.(7) and eq.(11) are equivalent. 
It is also important to point out that d/dt in eq.(11) does not necessarily mean the total time rate 
of change of the fluxover the surface S. For example, the flux over surface S is bounded by 
the closed contour C of the left portion of the electric circuit shown in Figure 1. The flux is 

changing as the coil is unwound by the rotation of the cylinder as illustrated. However, since 
B is static there is no variational e.m.f. and since the conductors are not modulating lines of flux 
there is no motional e.m.f. Thus, d/dt in eq.(11) is zero even the flux is changing with time. 
Note that d/dt was defined as representing the right hand part of the expression in e.(10) and 
d/dt must not be more broadly interpreted. 
       In the application of the presented equations it is required that one refer all flux densities 
and movements to a single specified coordinate system. In particular, the velocities will all be 
with respect to this system alone and not interpreted as relative velocities between conductors or 
moving lines of flux. The coordinate system is arbitrarily selected and the magnitudes of 
variational and motional fields depend upon the selection. 
EXAMPLE #1  A fundamental electric generator is shown in Figure 2. The parallel 
stationary conductors separated by distance l have a moving conductor connected to across them. 

The circuit is completed by a moving conductor connected to the parallel conductors by means 
of two sliding taps. This conductor is located at y=0 when time t=0, and moves to the right at 
a constant velocity V=Vay. The applied flux B is represented by dots on Figure 2 and has a 
magnitude that equals B=Bo cosBy cos wt ax. The unit vectors in the directions of the respective 
coordinate axes are ax, ay, and az. 
     Solution: Let S denote the plane rectangular surface bounded by the closed electric circuit, 
with a positive side selected as the side facing the reader. The counterclockwise e.m.f. around 
the circuit is d/dt withsignifying the magnetic flux out of the positive side of S (As ds=1 
dy ax). The scalar product B*ds is Bo l cos By, cost dy; integrating from y=0 to y=y gives: 
with y1 denoting the instantaneous y position of the moving wire. The counterclockwise e.m.f. 
is found by replacing y with vt and evaluating d/dt. The result is 
The variational (transformer) component is which is determined with aid of eq.(12) to 
be where y=vt. This is the first component on the right side of eq.(13). 
Note: y l was treated as a constant when evaluating the partial time derivative of. 
The motional E-field is the line integral of V x B along the path of the moving conductor. As 
V x B isand As dl is dz ax evaluation of the integral of 
dz from Z=0 to Z=1 results in a motional E-field ofThis component results 
from modulation of the lines of flux by the moving conductor. If the voltmeter draws no current, 
there can be no electromagnetic force on the free electrons of the wire. Therefore, the e.m.f. 
along the path of the metal conductors including the moving conductor is zero. 
    Suppose the conductor with the sliding taps is stationary (V=0) and it is 
located at y=y 1 . Also suppose the magnetic field B is produced by a system of moving 
conductors not shown in Figure 2 which are travelling with a constant velocity V=Vay . At time 
t=0 the magnetic field B is Bo sinBy ax. Determine the voltage across the voltmeter. 
    Solution: There is no motional E-field because the conductors in Figure 2 are at rest 
(stationary) with respect to our selected coordinate system. However, the magnetic field at points 
fixed with respect to the coordinate system is changing with time and as a result there is a 
variational e.m.f. Since the B-field at t=0 is B 0 sinBy ax and has a velocity of V=Vay it can be 
calculated that the B-field as a function of time is B o sin[B(y-vt)] ax. This is verified by noting 
that an observer located at y at time t=0 who is travelling at the constant velocity (V=Vay) of 
the moving current would have a y coordinate of y=y +Vt and an accordingly different 
expression for B. He would observe a constant field where the magnetic current density is: 
The counterclockwise e.m.f. can be arrived at by taking the negative of an integral of the above 
expression for the rectangular surface bounded by the electric circuit with the positive side facing 
the reader with the limits of zero and y. The resulting e.m.f. equals: 
which is the voltage across the meter. 
Conventional theory says that electric fields and magnetic fields are different things. 
Consider for a moment a charge with an electric field around it. If the charge is moved a 
magnetic field develops and the moving charge constitutes a current. If an observer were to 
move along with the charge, he would see no relative motion, no current, and no magnetic field. 
A stationary observer would see motion, current and a magnetic field. It would appear that a 
magnetic field is an electric field observed from a motional reference frame. Similarly, if we 
take a mass with a gravity field around it and we move the mass and create a mass current, a 
new field is also created. It is a different kind of gravity field with no source and no sink. It 
is called the Protational field also known as the "Lense-Thirring Effect". This field an its 
governing principles will form the basis for future anti-gravity devices.
       Within the confined area of the Vacuum Triode box, the spacetime continuum is reversed 
by the fields that are produced in the presence of excited coherent space flux quanta. These 
quanta have been attracted from and ultimately extracted from the virtual vacuum, the infinitely 
non-exhaustible Dirac Sea. For a more detailed mathematical format see Appendix A, a paper 
on "The Phase Conjugate Vacuum Triode" by T.E. Bearden, April 23, 1987. Much of the theory 
which likely applies to the vacuum triode has been developed in the field of phase conjugate 
      With regards to over-unity phenomena it is important to note that so long as positive 
energy is present in a positive/flowing time regime unity and over-unity power gains are not 
possible. The summation of the losses due to resistance, impedance, friction, magnetic hysteresis 
and eddy currents and windage losses of rotating machinery will always reduce overall efficiency 
below unity for a closed system. The laws of conservation of energy always apply to all 
systems. However, the induced motional E-filed changes the system upon which those laws need 
be applied. Since the vacuum triode operates in dimensions more than four and provides a line 
between the multi-dimensional reality of the quantum state and a link between Dirac Sea we are 
now dealing with an open-ended system, not the closed system within which all conservation and 
thermodynamic laws were developed. To achieve unity, the summation of all magnetic and 
ohmic losses must equal zero. To achieve this state negative energy and resistance moves to zero 
and all energy flows along the outside of conductors in the form of a special space field. 
Negative energy is fully capable of lighting incandescent lights, running motors, and performing 
all of the functions of positive energy tested to date. When run in parallel with positive energy 
however, cancellation (annihilation) of opposing power types occurs. This has been fully tested 
in the laboratory. 
     Once unity has been achieved and the gate to the Dirac Sea opened, over-unity is affected 
by loading the open gate more and more which opens it further to the point where direct 
communication/interaction with the nucleus of the atom itself is achieved. Output of the vacuum 
triode is not proportional to the excitation input as the output produced by the device is directly 
proportional to the load which is placed upon it. That load is the only dependent variable for 
device output. The triode's output voltage and frequency always remains constant due to the 
conditioning of the motional E-field in the permanent magnets and the small regulated excitation 
signal which is provided through a small oscillator. Regulation remains constant, output locks 
into an in-phase condition (cos=1 Kvar=1) under all load characteristics. 
     The vacuum triode is a solid state device consisting of conditioned permanent magnets 
capable of producing a motional field. This field opens the gate to the Dirac Sea where negative 
energy is able to flow from an into the triode's receiving coils. The coils are very small diameter 
copper wire but are capable of producing in excess of 5 kilowatts of useful power; this in itself 
is a clear indicator that the type of electrical energy provided by the device is not conventional. 
The wire sizes employed by the device would not be capable of carrying such large currents 
without excessive heat gain, however, the triode's coils actually run cooler when loaded at 5 kW. 
The fundamental magnets have been broken free of their binding forces which constrained them 
to be steadystate single pole uniform magnetic flux devices. They are now able to simply 
support mass, as demonstrated with the transformer steel illustration. They can now easily be 
made to adopt a dynamic motional field by applying a tiny amount of excitation. Specifically, 
10V @ 1 mA (10 mW) of excitation at 60 Hz. will enable the coils of the triode to receive from 
the Dirac Sea in excess of 5000 watts of usable negative energy; how much more can safely be 
removed has not yet been determined. 
Construction of the Floyd Sweet's Vacuum Triode Amplifier