Posted on 12-10-00
You will find below some informations sent by Tom Bearden.
|Date :||Sat, 9 Dec 2000 01:36:27 -0600|
|From: xxxxxx (Tom
To: Jnaudin509@aol.com (Jean-Louis Naudin)
Some fellows in your discussion groups raised the question of my use of energy flow (Poynting diverged component versus Heaviside nondiverged component) but made an error in their questioning. The correction is important for the free energy researcher, for it reveals a gigantic source of free energy around every little EM circuit, once we pay a little to get the circuit in operation. In other words, scientists should have harnessed more of that already enormous energy flow right under their noses around every circuit anyway, and should have given us free, cheap, clean electrical power.
To understand EM energy flow around EM circuits, I strongly suggest one put aside the textbooks' interpretations until one checks the original applicable papers of Heaviside and of Poynting, who independently and essentially simultaneously discovered the flow of energy through space in the 1880s. The concept of the flow of energy through space was not present in physics until then. Also note that Maxwell was already dead, having passed on from stomach cancer in 1879. Several of my papers (e.g., Dark Matter or Dark Energy?, published in Journal of New Energy) give the appropriate references one should check.
First, there is an enormous energy flow (trillions of times greater than what you input to the shaft of a generator, and than the chemical energy in a battery) pouring out of the terminals of every generator or battery. The enormity of this energy flow is easily shown, and measurements can be made of actual collection of energy from it by intercepting charges placed in it. Particularly see John D. Kraus, Electromagnetics, Fourth Edn., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992, Figure 12-60, a and b, p. 578. Kraus shows a good drawing of the huge energy flow filling all space around the two conductors of a transmission line, with almost all of that energy flow not intercepted by the circuit at all and thus not diverged into the circuit to power it, but just "wasted."
Kraus also shows the "equi-divergence" contours in this energy flow, with measurements of the energy flow that can be collected by (diverged around) a unit point static charge placed at any point on each contour. So yes, that vast energy flow filling all space surrounding the circuit is real, it is known, but it has been arbitrarily discarded from accountability in energy measurements in circuits because no one has been able to explain the source of it before. We explain it in "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole", published in Journal of New Energy.
Note that, at any point in one of Kraus' contours, if you place 100 unit point static coulombs of intercepting charge at that same point instead of the unit point static charge that is "standard", you will diverge continuously around that charge some 100 times as much energy flow as the magnitude shown by Kraus. In short, then you multiply the value of energy interception at each point on that contour by 100. Since we are describing a steady state condition, this means that now we are collecting 100 times as much energy "statically" (actually "continuously and steadily) at each point in the divergence zone around the charge.
You can do that sort of thing at each and every point in space surrounding the circuit, out to an almost infinite radius. None of that vast energy flow that is in that surrounding space is hitting the circuit and entering it. Also, you really can collect energy from that wasted but enormous energy flow.
Only a tiny, tiny portion of that surrounding external energy flow moves right along the surface of the conductors, strikes the surface charges in the circuit conductors and components, and is thereby diverged into the conductors to power up (potentialize) the Drude electrons and the circuit. That tiny "diverged" portion of the energy flow that enters the circuit is the Poynting component, not the losses. The respondent thus got it exactly reversed. Here is Poynting's own words:
"This paper describes a hypothesis as to the connexion between current in conductors and the transfer of electric and magnetic inductions in the surrounding field. The hypothesis is suggested by the mode of transfer of energy in the electromagnetic field, resulting from Maxwell's equations investigated in a former paper ("Phil. Trans.," vol. 175, pp. 343-361, 1884). It was there shown that according to Maxwell's electromagnetic theory the energy which is dissipated in the circuit is transferred through the medium, always moving perpendicularly to the plane containing the lines of electric and magnetic intensity, and that it comes into the conductor from the surrounding insulator, not flowing along the wire." [J.H. Poynting, "On the connexion between electric current and the electric and magnetic inductions in the surrounding field," Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., Vol. 38, 1984-85, p. 168].
So your respondent was in error when he spoke of that little "dip" in the flow as what was "wasted" and the "losses". He got it exactly reversed.
Here is the straightforward way to deal with it. Simply separate the entire energy flow vector into two vector components: a very large component vector parallel to the conductor and a very small vertical component vector pointing vertically into the wire from outside. The combination (the sum vector) is the entire energy flow that is almost parallel to the wires but not quite (see quote from Heaviside). The parallel flow component vector is the Heaviside energy flow that completely misses the conductors and roars off into space and is lost. The tiny vertical flow component is the Poynting energy flow component that enters the circuit and powers it by potentializing the Drude electrons, and then being dissipated by the excited electrons in the circuit's loads and losses. This small vertical component is the tiny energy flow portion that Poynting assumed from the outset, and he never even considered the enormous parallel component.
The problem was that, if one estimated the magnitude of the sum vector energy flow or the Heaviside parallel component, the startling amount of energy pouring out of the terminals was so vast that it staggered the imagination. In the 1880s, if you tried to state that a "one watt nominal circuit" actually was pouring out trillions of joules per second, almost all of which missed the circuit entirely and roared off into space and was lost, you would have been tarred and feathered and drummed out of science as a total lunatic. Heaviside had not the slightest notion of what could possibly be furnishing such a mind-staggering energy flow! So Heaviside -- who did include that NONDIVERGED vast component in his theory (while Poynting completely omitted it), was extremely cautious and spoke only of the "angle" of the energy flow and the "angles" of the components. Here are his exact words:
"It [the energy transfer flow] takes place, in the vicinity of the wire, very nearly parallel to it, with a slight slope towards the wire... . Prof Poynting, on the other hand, holds a different view, representing the transfer as nearly perpendicular to a wire, i.e., with a slight departure from the vertical. This difference of a quadrant can, I think, only arise from what seems to be a misconception on his part as to the nature of the electric field in the vicinity of a wire supporting electric current. The lines of electric force are nearly perpendicular to the wire. The departure from perpendicularity is usually so small that I have sometimes spoken of them as being perpendicular to it, as they practically are, before I recognized the great physical importance of the slight departure. It causes the convergence of energy into the wire." Oliver Heaviside, Electrical Papers, Vol. 2, 1887, p. 94.
As you can see, that slight "dip" is due to the vertical convergence of the Poynting energy component into the wire, and that is of course known in electrodynamics and appears in the texts.
Now when you measure energy in circuits, you actually measure energy dissipation. All the energy that is dissipated from or in a circuit, must have entered the circuit in the first place. So if you measure all the energy that a circuit dissipates, that is equal to all the energy that actually entered the circuit via the Poynting component. In short, we always "measure" Poynting's entering energy component as it is exiting, in the many places and components where it exits, etc.
We are NEVER measuring the remaining vast energy flow component, which Heaviside exposed and which the Kraus diagram illustrates very well.
And there the matter rested until Lorentz (the
greatest electrical scientist of his day) entered the picture.
Lorentz understood both components, but he also had not the
foggiest notion of where on earth such an enormous energy flow
could be coming from. He also would have been attacked and
destroyed if he had actually advocated that huge "Heaviside"
Unable to solve the vexing problem, Lorentz simply got rid of it. He reasoned that Heaviside's vast parallel component was "physically insignificant" (Lorentz's term) since it did not interact with the circuit and did not power anything, and therefore it could just be arbitrarily discarded from all accountability. So Lorentz simply integrated the entire energy flow vector around an assumed closed surface surrounding any volume element of interest. Voila! The Heaviside nondiverged component of the energy flow vector passes straight through, positive (let us say) going into the surface and thus negative coming out of it. Hence the Lorentz closed surface integration procedure discards the enormous Heaviside nondiverged component. It does not eliminate the actual huge energy flow, but just arbitrarily discards any further accountability of it. On the other hand, the Lorentz procedure does retain the DIVERGED component, so it retains Poynting's component.
Electrodynamicists have just continued that very practice to this day, and have never resolved the "Heaviside component" problem. They do not usually bring it out as clearly as has Kraus, but even Kraus does not point out the startling fact that this proves that the shaft input to a generator cannot possibly be producing all that energy flow. Electrodynamicists continue to avoid the Heaviside flow component problem, because their model eliminates the vacuum interaction with the source dipole formed in the generator. Energy extracted from the vacuum by the broken 3-symmetry of that source dipole is what pours out both the Heaviside and Poynting energy flow components, as I discuss in my paper, "Dark Matter or Dark Energy?" in Journal of New Energy.
However, this integration procedure has caused the great confusion that some electrodynamicists and particularly many engineers are unaware that there is a dramatic difference between the entire EM "energy flow" per se that is connected with the circuit, and the Poynting energy flow component that is connected with the circuit. About half think those are one and the same thing, including authors of some of the textbooks.
Anyway, my paper, "Giant Negentropy of the Common Dipole", just published in Journal of New Energy, points out the rigorous and surprising solution of the Heaviside-Lorentz problem, and gives the precise source and of the enormous size of that discarded but still present nondiverged EM energy flow around every EM circuit.
In an AIAS group paper, Anastasovski, P. K; Bearden, T. E; Ciubotariu, C; Coffey, W. T.; Crowell, L. B; Evans, G. J; Evans, M. W; Flower, R; Jeffers, S; Labounsky, A; Lehnert, B; Meszaros, M; Molnar, P. R; Vigier, J P; Roy, S. "Classical electrodynamics without the Lorentz condition: Extracting energy from the vacuum," Physica Scripta 61(5), May 2000, p.513-517, I gave several ways of possibly extracting (diverging into the circuit and using) more of that Heaviside energy flow. The simplest and proven way (COP = 18) is the Bohren experiment which simply places the intercepting "unit point charge" into resonance. Thus the Bohren resonating charge sweeps out a greater geometrical reaction cross section area in the impinging energy flow, and collects more of the otherwise "missing a static charge" energy flow adjacent to a static collecting charge.
If -- after it has passed the circuit -- you retroreflect the Heaviside energy flow component back across the same circuit, you will get an additional Poynting collection by the surface charges, and get more energy. If you iterate this retroreflection, you get an overunity process, IF you do not use the common closed current loop circuit which uses half of the collected energy to destroy the dipole faster that one can power the load. Instead, one might adapt Tesla's "one wire circuit" between two widely separated capacitors connected by a long conductor. The best way, of course, is Letokhov's "negative absorption of the medium" which is excess emission from optically active, highly scattering media.
In the Physica Scripta you may also be interested in some of the more than a dozen ways suggested for extracting energy from the vacuum.
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